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ホームIMICライブラリMMWR抄訳2017年(Vol.66)ジカウイルス ― 2016年における10項目の公衆・・・

MMWR抄訳

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2017/01/06Vol. 65 / No. 52

MMWR65(52):1482-1488
Zika Virus — 10 Public Health Achievements in 2016 and Future Priorities

ジカウイルス ― 2016年における10項目の公衆衛生の功績と今後の優先事項

アメリカ地域へのジカウイルスに流入とその後の先天性小頭症の症例の増加は、CDCの応急対策拠点施設の活性化に結び付き、2016年2月1日にWHOにより国際的に懸念される公衆衛生上の緊急事態が宣言された。2016年12月15日現在、61の国々および地域で今回のアウトブレイクの一部として局地的なジカウイルス感染が報告されており、29の国々および地域では先天性ジカウイルス症候群の可能性ある症例が報告されている。昨年中、世界中の公衆衛生当局および研究者は妊婦を守るために協力し、医師および市民に情報を提供するとともに、ジカウイルスについての知識を向上させてきた。今回のレポートでは、ジカウイルスによりもたらされる危険への取り組みに寄与した10項目ついてまとめた。CDCはジカウイルスへの緊急対応として、アウトブレイクに関連する多くの公衆衛生のニーズ、および新規の公衆衛生サーベイランスや感染制御ツールの開発に迅速に取り組んできた。これには、1)妊婦に現在ジカウイルスが流行中の地域へ旅行しないよう警告する旅行ガイダンス、2)妊婦および乳児のケアのための臨床ガイダンス、3)ジカウイルス感染の性感染の確認、4)血液の安全性および使用可能性のモニタリング、5)臨床検査キットおよび試薬の開発および配布、6)妊娠中のジカウイルス感染と小頭症を含む重症の脳異常の因果関係の確立、7)リスクの大きさおよび乳児/胎児の全ての転帰を理解するために、ジカウイルスに感染した妊婦のデータの収集および分析、8)ジカウイルス感染の影響を減少させるための手段として、望まない妊娠を減らすための広範囲な避妊法へのアクセスの改善、9)ベクターコントロール戦略の実施および最良の実践の基礎となるエビデンスの構築、10) ギランバレー症候群とジカウイルス感染間の因果関係の理解の向上が挙げられる。妊娠中のジカウイルス感染の影響から妊婦および胎児、乳児を守るため、公衆衛生活動はベクターコントロールおよび個人の保護実践による蚊媒介性伝染の阻止、および適切な手法による性感染や望まない妊娠の防止に重点的に取り組むべきである。

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